Organization is something that we commonly encounter in social life. What is the meaning of organization, its functions, and types? Read more in the following review!
From school age to adulthood, we have been introduced to organizational life. In general, understanding the organization is an entity consisting of one or more people who have a specific purpose. Organizations can be associations, institutions, or companies.
In management, the organization acts as the backbone. Management cannot carry out their duties and functions properly without an efficient organization. The organization itself has many parts that are the object of study by researchers from various disciplines—starting from social studies, politics, psychology, to economics.
Understanding Organizations According to Experts
In terms of language, organization comes from the Latin ‘organum’ and the Greek ‘organon,’ which means body, tool, part, or member. Meanwhile, based on the Big Indonesian Dictionary, an organization is an association or unit consisting of several people who have a goal to be achieved together.
Experts also have their definitions regarding the notion of organization. Louis Allen, an American civil rights activist, said that organization is a process of identification, a grouping of tasks that’s it must be done, and the delegation of responsibilities and authorities that enable people to work together effectively to achieve a common goal.
Meanwhile, Max Weber defines an organization as a structured framework of social relations. There is a division of duties, authorities, and responsibilities to carry out certain functions.
In general, one can conclude that the notion of an organization is a forum for a group of people who work together in a structured manner according to their respective duties. Everyone in the organization has the same goals and has interaction with the outside world. This includes student council organizations in schools, institutions, and companies you have founded.
Organizations operate to perform various functions. These functions will ultimately help all members in it to achieve common goals. The functions are:
1. Determining the Duties of Each Member
Any organization, both community organizations, and companies have members with different tasks. All individuals within the company or institution must know their roles, positions, and relationships with other department members. With this understanding, all members can contribute to achieving organizational goals.
2. Assigning Authority
The existence of a division of tasks and roles allows the granting of different powers. The presence of an organization is needed to define authority, namely the other rights and abilities of each member. Authority in different positions will help everyone in the organization to carry out their assigned roles.
3. Assignment of Responsibilities
Each individual in the organization is assigned a specific task. The organizational structure defines what performance is expected of a member. Third, if there is no determination or an error in determining responsibility, there will be behavior and attitudes of members that harm the organization.
The duties of each individual are divided based on the specialization possessed by each member. This is necessary so that the various elements of the work run smoothly, efficiently, and by the objectives.
Because the pattern of organizational operations is divided based on the tasks of each component, there will be a need for mutual coordination. These various activities must be ‘woven’ to become the ‘main cloth’ in the organization.
6. Appropriate Utilization of Human Resources
A good organization must be able to make good use of its human resources. There should be no wastage and abuse. If something is lacking, the organization can provide additional skills or knowledge to fulfill all their duties properly.
Also read: Definition of Human Resource Management
7. Function Efficiency
The execution of all the functions above can create efficiency in carrying out tasks and achieving goals. Organizations should avoid duplication of work, overlap, and waste. That way, the company’s functions can dash smoothly and efficiently.
As social beings, organizations have an important role and many benefits for humans. There are various benefits that you can get through the organization, including:
- Achieving the desired goal together.
- Helping each member work together in addressing the problems that exist within the organization.
- The development of a good organization will positively impact all its members, including increasing knowledge.
- Creating a spirit of cooperation, both in achieving common goals and solving all problems that arise.
- Develop public speaking skills of all members. You are required to express opinions, find solutions, and so on for the organization.
- Building a leadership spirit. In the organization, all members must be able to prioritize the common interest over personal interests. This will cultivate the spirit of solidarity and leadership of each individual.
- Helps build emotional intelligence. Within the organization, you will come face to face with a wide variety of individuals with various characters. This is a form of practice to be better at socializing and dealing with many people. You will get a positive impact on good emotional development and more stability by being organized.
- The ability to divide time. Within the organization, various schedules must be adhered to. You can make the organization a place to practice your ability to manage and value time.
Types of Organization
As mentioned earlier, there are many organizations formed in our society. Each organization has a different role, function, and purpose. There are at least four types of organizations that you need to know, namely:
1. Political Organization
Political organizations are tasked with organizing the activities of a country. Some examples of political organizations are executive, legislative, judicial, political parties, TNI, etc.
2. Business Organization
A business organization or company is an organization that works in economic activities for profit or profit. There are business organizations that are small to global in scale.
3. Professional Organization
A group of people who have the same profession generally form a group with a specific purpose. In carrying out organizational or professional activities, all members must work based on a code of ethics. Examples of professional organizations are IDI (Indonesian Doctors Association), Parfi (Indonesian Film Artists Association), etc.
4. Social Organization
People form social organizations for various purposes. Some are made to meet economic, familial, scientific, religious, and other needs.
After knowing about the meaning of the organization, its functions, and benefits, you must also have the right plans and strategies to achieve all company goals. There is an IREAP LITE application that can facilitate your operational activities for those of you who have a business organization. See more information at www.ireappos.com