Definition of Management, Functions, Elements, Style, and Types


Definition of Management

In general, the definition of management is the process by which a person can manage things or work done by individuals or groups. In general, management can be defined as the ability a person has in managing something to achieve the expected target or goal.

Understanding Management According to Experts

Management According to ExpertsHowever, experts have their own views on what management is.

Frederick Winslow Taylor

In his book entitled The Principles of Scientific Management, the Father of Scientific Management states that management is the art of knowing what you want to do then seeing that it is done using the best and economical way.

Harold Koontz

Apart from being known as a consultant, business management professor, and American organization theorist, along with Heinz Weihrich, Harold Koontz wrote a book entitled Management: Study Guide.

In the book, Harold defines management as the art of getting things done with people in a formally organized group to achieve goals.

Ricky W. Griffin

Honoured professor of Management at Mays Business School – Texas A&M University and owner of the Blocker Chair in Business in his book Management 11th Edition argues that management is a process of planning, coordination, organization, and control of resources so that goals can be achieved effectively (according to plan) and efficient (careful and timely).

Lawrence A. Appley

Well-known as an organizational theorist and management specialist in America, Lawrence A. Apppley was awarded the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal in 1962. The author of the book Management in Action defines management as a skill that can arouse other people, both individuals, and groups to be willing to do something.

George R. Terry

George R. Terry shares Ricky W. Griffin’s views. In his book Principles of Management, Terry stated that management is the process of planning, organizing, implementing, and controlling by utilizing all available resources to achieve goals.

Management Function

Management FunctionIn Notes on the Theory of Organization, Luther Gulick, known as a scientist, professor, and public administration expert, created initials representing the seven functions of management, namely:

  • P (planning)
  • O (organizing)
  • S (staf)
  • D (directing)
  • Co (coordination)
  • R (reporting)
  • B (budgeting)

However, only five management functions are widely recognized, namely planning, organizing, staff locating, directing, and coordinating.

1. Planning

Planning is a future-oriented systematic and rational way of determining the direction of a company or organization. Effective planning usually combines both internal and external factors.

Internal factors can be interpreted as limited growth opportunities that require changes in work patterns, decentralization, diversification, and organizational structure. Meanwhile, external factors include a lack of material and capital resources, international political instability, trends in inflation and interest rates, government regulations, and technological advances.

Read also: What is a SWOT analysis? Benefits and Examples

2. Organizing

This function will determine the activities that need to be carried out in order to achieve organizational or company goals. The trick is to assign tasks to the right personnel, including delegating the authority to carry out activities in a coordinated and integrated manner.

3. Staff Assignment

As the name implies, this function aims to screen, recruit, train, develop, evaluate, and retain a workforce that is deemed appropriate for a company at the managerial or non-managerial level. To get a workforce that suits the company, it requires a deep understanding that apart from technical competence, operational competence, psychological and sociological structures are also important.

4. Directing

The direction is closely related to leadership, supervision, motivation, and communication so that employees do work to achieve targets as efficiently as possible. Leadership involves instructions and guidance from superiors to subordinates regarding methods and procedures.

Supervision is very important to know the progress of a task or project and ensure that what is done by subordinates is according to instructions. In order for maximum employee performance, a boss must provide motivation supported by two-way communication. That way, both superiors, and subordinates will get the information and feedback needed for the progress of tasks or projects.

5. Coordinating

This function consists of a series of activities, such as setting work performance standards, measuring work performance, and comparing these results with standards. If deviations occur, corrective action will be taken with the aim of improving the situation.

Management Elements

Management ElementsThe 5M element in management describes how managers acquire and distribute resources in a manufacturing environment to achieve business goals. The 5M is as follows.

1. Manpower

This element refers to human resources who are committed to implementing marketing tactics, both existing and new techniques. Without a workforce, work cannot go according to plan.

2. Materials

You could say, materials are the supply chain needed to support management and marketing strategies in the present and the future. If the materials are not available, the process of achieving the expected goals will be hampered.

Also read: 9 Building Blocks of Business Model Canvas

3. Machine

Although it is often referred to as a supporting element, machines have a very vital function. The reason is, without a machine, the process of achieving goals will be disrupted. Machines are used to facilitate management in processing raw materials and creating quality products.

4. Minutes (Time)

Time is the most valuable asset so it requires an overview of the management planning process and time is as effective as possible, such as how long it will take a new product to be on the market and how responsive the company is to the competition.

5. Money (Finance)

It is undeniable that money is the most important element in management. Without money, production activities cannot run as they should. Smooth finances will make it easier for management to design better plans to reach targets as quickly and efficiently as possible.

Management Style

Management StyleFrom the definition of management and the elements described above, it can be concluded that management must be carried out as efficiently and effectively as possible. Effective means that the achievement results must be in accordance with the target, while efficient is related to the funds and time needed during the process of achieving goals.

To achieve this, a proper management style is required. The styles in question are as follows.

1. Visionary

Visionary managers are responsible for communicating goals and directing their employees to work hard to carry out the mission.

Usually, the visionary manager will let employees work according to their own terms. With notes, these employees remain productive. The visionary manager will only perform team checks to make sure employees don’t get off track.

A visionary manager must be assertive, fair, willing to listen to ideas put forward by employees, and willing to make changes if the idea is good for the company. To keep the vision running smoothly, visionary managers often provide employees with feedback and praise when employee performance matches or exceeds expectations.

2. Democratic

In this style, rules are everything. The manager will allow employees to participate in making decisions and value diverse team ideas. A manager who applies a democratic style must be able to understand that employees are the key to group success.

By giving employees the confidence and opportunity to have a voice, employees will feel highly valued and more responsible for their work. As a result, the relationship between managers and employees will be close.

This not only fosters a sense of trust between the two parties but also makes it easier for managers to convince employees when deviations occur during the process of achieving goals.

3. Transformational

The transformational manager is an innovator. The reason is, they believe that change and growth are the best way to stay ahead. A transformational manager does not hesitate to encourage employees to cross their comfort zone and make employees realize that their abilities are more than they think so far.

Besides being very effective in motivating employees to raise self-standards and improve team performance, this method will make employees feel more valued so that they are dedicated to their work.

4. Coach

The training manager has two main focuses, namely overseeing individual employee development and bringing the team together. A training manager has a responsibility to teach, develop, supervise and improve employee professionalism. The training manager doesn’t mind failure as long as employees are willing to learn to improve.

Not infrequently the training manager encourages employees to take opportunities, such as promotions or development programs that aim to improve team performance and capabilities.

Management Types

Management TypesNot only has a number of styles, but management also consists of various types. The most common types of management include the following.

Strategic Management

Strategic management is the science needed to compile, implement, and evaluate decisions to be made. This executive function is responsible for the running of the company or organization’s goal-setting process, the development of plans, and policies to allocate resources to realize the vision and goals.

Operations Management

This type of management focuses on the process of producing goods and services and ensuring development and maintenance are effective and efficient.

Sales Management

Sales management is an important part of the company’s business cycle. The sales manager has a big responsibility for leading, setting team goals, planning, controlling the sales process, and making sure the vision gets done.

Marketing Management

Marketing management is a tool used by companies to analyze, plan, implement, and control programs that have been designed with the aim of getting targeted profits.

Procurement Management

Procurement management is the process of managing the availability of goods and services from outside parties.

Supply Chain Management

This management is a series of coordination activities, scheduling, and control of the procurement, inventory, production, and delivery processes or products to consumers.

Read also: Functions and Roles of Producers, Distributors, Retailers and Consumers in the Supply Chain

Public Relations Management

This type of management has the function of conducting research, planning, implementing, and evaluating communication activities between the company and the public.

Financial Management and Accounting

Financial Management serves to manage processes and inform financial reports and activities related to accounting.

Human Resource Management

As the name implies, HR management is responsible for carrying out the recruitment process, training, and dealing with labor-related problems so as not to prevent the company from achieving its goals.

Information Technology Management

Serves to manage a team that has expertise in information technology according to the needs of the organization or company.

R&D Management

R&D (Research and Development) management is responsible for the process of product creation, research, and development.

Risk Management

Risk management is an approach to managing uncertainty, identifying, assessing, and controlling opportunities with negative consequences.

Project Management

Project management is the science of planning, organizing, managing, and controlling the process in order to achieve the goals set by the company.

Program Management

The program manager is in charge of managing the ongoing project portfolio.

Engineering Management

This type of management focuses on managing engineering applications in engineering for business solutions, such as manufacturing, developing new products or services, and construction.

Quality Management

Broadly speaking, planning management does not only focus on the quality of a product but also on three important components, namely assurance, improvement, and quality control.

Design Management

The design manager is responsible for investigating, controlling the creative process, building structures, and supporting creativity.

Innovation Management

Innovation management focuses on the business process, product or service, strategy, research, and development of the company.

Change Management

Change management is a systematic and structured approach to realizing business change.

Facilities Management

This type of management is a combination of a number of management functions that are integrated or devoted to coordinating the company, managing the facilities and infrastructure of the company.

This is the information about definition of management complete with functions, elements, styles and types. Hopefully, this information will make it easier for you to understand management better.



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